This report uses global value chains (GVC) analysis to understand how the changing dynamics of the global tobacco industry are affecting producers in low-income countries that are heavily reliant on the tobacco industry. Growing evidence of the negative health effects of smoking has led to increased adoption of tobacco control measures around the world. Although the overall goal of tobacco control is to protect public health, there are also concerns about whether decreases in demand as a result of tobacco control policies negatively impact small producers and increase poverty in developing countries that highly depend on tobacco exports. The report provides an introduction to the global tobacco industry, and three countries cases: Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Indonesia. It was prepared on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Secretariat and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).